Domain D: cool tops.
For explanation of inset see below.
Cloudy, wet and windy. Cool temperatures. Thin, leached soils and rock outcrops. Inland this domain occurs approximately between 400-550 metres but on seaward hills it occurs at lower altitudes (around 350 metres). Clearance of forest appears to create an altitudinally depressed montane environment in which succession is retarded. A lower density of wildlife than other domains may contribute to this perceived slowness.
Pioneer: tussock herbfield, rich in lichens.
Secondary: single-tier scrubland of cool and moist climate species such as horopito (Pseudowintera colorata), manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa), tree fuchsia/kotukutuku (Fuchsia excorticata), toro.
Mature: two-tier forest (few emergents if any) dominated by kamahi (W.racemosa), with some miro (Podocarpus ferrugineus) and hinau (Elaeocarpus dentaus) on deeper soils.
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